Archive for the Uncategorized Category

Probability of IPTV in Nepal with the partnership of NTC

Monday, July 29th, 2013 | Permalink

Chapter 1
Brief Introduction of Partners
1.1 Executive Summary
There is significant market scope of Television Program in Nepal. The ITU-T has declared the deadline of analog switch off by the end of 2017 AD. By then, all the Television stations of the country including cable TV operators must switch off their existing analog system and change over to the digital system. In that case, Nepal Television has to replace all its analog terrestrial transmitters into digital and the market scope will not significantly change. It is the reason why Nepal Television looks into the avenues of the alternate market field to extend its scope of presence and the increment in the revenues. At that time of transition of Analog to digital, Nepal Television can get the significant opportunity to attract people towards the new technology of the Television which properly replaces the existing analog Cable TV using Digital Television in the cable; that is IPTV.

Nepal Television is not able to handle all the parts of IPTV itself so that it needs the strong partner which is rich in the Telecommunication sector because signal distribution part is very significant and big investment. It needs strong partnership to carry out the desired result in the project. An IPTV cannot only generate the revenues, but also is the best substitute of the existing analog CATV and the various digital TV channels will be available in the same PSTN Telephone line which carries voice, video and data simultaneously. Nepal Telecom has the huge infrastructure of PSTN Telephone line and that has not been consumed completely. IPTV will use the unused infrastructure and revenues also will be generated significantly.

1.2 Introduction of Partners involved

1.2.1 Nepal Television
Nepal Television is one of the partners for this IPTV project. Nepal Television has already two Television channels and has huge infrastructure, manpower and long time experience for Television Program Production. Nepal Television has amiable relationship with different Television Channels across the Word. That is why Nepal Television will be able to manage the content for the IPTV.

1.2.2. Nepal Telecom
Nepal Telecom could be the best partner for the IPTV project since it has huge infrastructure of PSTN line distribution across the country. Nepal Telecom has used its PSTN copper wire for voice and ADSL Internet Service. Still, there is a lot of potential Bandwidth to use IPTV which will be win-win situation if that is used by the IPTV. Being Nepal Telecom a state owned organization, there are similarities between Nepal Telecom and NTV which minimizes the legal and the administrative hurdles in the partnership.

Chapter 2

Business Model

2.1 The Structure of Partnership
There will be two partners in this project-Nepal Television and Nepal Telecom both state owned organizations of the country. The project will be growing in their partnership having their distinct responsibilities to complete, enhance and grow up the project.

2.2 The responsibility and task of each party

• NTV shall provide all the Television channels to be used in the IPTV. NTV will bear the responsibilities to contract with all the Television Stations to use the Television Channels in the IPTV. Nepal Television will use its both channels; will contract with other popular Nepali Channels and many other popular International Television Channels.

• Nepal Telecom will be responsible to decode the channels, multiplexing them, encoding, scrambling and sending to IP network. The IP Network Infrastructure shall be borne by Nepal Telecom. Nepal Telecom also shall be responsible for billing and monitoring of the IPTV.

The above two parties will work together to obtain the permission from MOIC for the project.

2.3 Critical Factors in the Partnership

The policy and permission for the project will be the significant critical factor. So, MOIC should have significant role for the permission. Similarly, tax, VAT and profit sharing will be the critical factor which needs to be managed carefully.

Chapter 3

Background of IPTV

3.1 Definition of IPTV
IPTV (Internet Protocol Television) is a system through which television services are delivered using the Internet Protocol suite over a packet switched network such as Internet, instead of delivering through traditional terrestrial, satellite signal and cable Television formats.

IPTV Services may be classified into three main groups:

• Live Television, with or without interactivity related to the current TV show.

• Time Shifted Television: Catch-up TV (replays a TV show that was broadcast hours a days ago), start-over TV(replays the TV show prom its beginning)

• Video on Demand (VOD): Provides the required video on demand that may or may not be the TV program.
Note: IPTV is different from Internet Television.
The official definition of IPTV approved by ITU-T is: “IPTV is defined as multimedia services such as television, video, audio, text, graphics, data etc. delivered over IP based networks managed to provide the required level of quality of service and experience, security, interactivity and reliability”.

3.2 Global Trend of IPTV
Since the World is going to switch off the analog and traditional Television Broadcasting system and switching over to digital Television Broadcasting and content distribution trend. So, IPTV has the best future for the digital television transmission and distribution which has the interactivity, security, reliability and VOD facilities. IPTV is available in the packet based network so that same infrastructure of Internet and voice service can be utilized for the IPTV; that is why; IPTV became popular in a short period of time. IPTV can be received not only in the Television receivers, but also in the computers and mobile phones. The IPTV has the big market across the World.

Map of IPTV countries of the world.
Shadow: Countries where IPTV is available in at least some parts of the country

3.3 Nepal’s Analog Switch off by 2017
ITU has already declared the deadline to completely switch off analog Television and switchover to digital by 2017 in Nepal. By then, all the analog CATV services will be disappearing in the market and people will be looking for the best alternate of the old analog CATV. Since, Nepal Telecom has the wide distribution of PSTN Telephone network and has already provided voice and Internet service. If we could add Television Channels in the same infrastructure in the existing PSTN line, people will have the best alternate to use the IPTV because they will enjoy the voice, video and data simultaneously in the same cable. So, it is the right time to utilize the PSTN infrastructure to make people available multiple services and generate genuine revenue from the unused infrastructure.

Chapter 4
Introduction of IPTV
4.1 Overview
IPTV is a method of securely distributing video content to televisions over a managed two-way network IP infrastructure that enables a more customize and interactive user experience. IPTV can enable interactive content such as interactive advertisement and real time network based functionalities on a regular TV Set, computers and hand-held devices like cell phones. IPTV can allow people who are separated geographically locating to watch movie together, while instant messaging and exchanging files simultaneously and supports rich Video on Demand Service. It provides real-time Television Chanel services, interactive service and video on Demand simultaneously using Internet based Network. But it is not an Internet TV which has high reliability, security and quality of Service.

4.2 IPTV users’ trend
According to study by consultancy firm Detecon International, the market of Internet Protocol TV (IPTV) in Germany is set to grow strongly in the next five years than previously predicted reaching over five million users by 2013. The study reports that IPTV operators will plough further investment into advertising their value-added services and will become more involved in programme production, and therefore have the ability to ‘directly address end-customers for the compilation of attractive offers. So the IPTV users are increasingly exponentially over the time.

4.3 Features
1. Interactivity – The interactivity of an IPTV system is one of its major selling points, as not only does it allow you to access pictures/videos from your computer on your television; but the system can also be adapted to allow the viewer to search content by title and/or actor’s name. Viewers can also channel surf without leaving the programme they’re watching and review stats of a certain player whilst watching live sport.
2. Record, watch and pause live-TV.
3. Tailor the channel selection available to suit premises, wherever you install the service. If required, you can display digital signage or in-house channels via the service too.
4. Multiple users without affecting the performance – it doesn’t matter how many people are connected that won’t affect the bandwidth.
5. Video-on-Demand – This allows any authorized user attached to your computer network to access videos and various other multimedia devices which are stored on your system. This makes the installation of IPTV within schools and colleges extremely beneficial, due to reducing overhead costs.

Chapter 5
IPTV Market Analysis
5.1 Market Analysis
There are more than 600,000 PSTN users in the country. When the large number of services will be available in the same system, the demand of the PSTN lines will be increased drastically to get the voice, video and data services simultaneously. The data of the Nepal Telecom says that the numbers of Internet users are increasing day by day. The more the Internet users, the more will be the IPTV users. So, the market of IPTV will increase over the time.
5.2 Advantages of IPTV and the Joint Venture
5.2.1 The Advantages of Implementation of IPTV for users
• Live Television Programs
• Interactive Television
• Video on Demand
5.2.2 The competitiveness of the Joint Venture
Each partner could contribute its core resources to the joint venture, making it possible to grow rapidly and win subscribers from traditional operations.
Diversity of income
The joint venture has a variety of ways to make profit. Besides the monthly fees on TV or mobile devices, it can also provide value added services, e.g. VOD (Video on Demand). As the demand of education, tourism, and TV shopping grows rapidly, the joint venture can establish some channels and rent to educational Institutes, tourism agencies, or TV shopping companies.
Low Cost
The cost of the IPTV users will not be more than the traditional cable users with additional facilities and value added services. So, the ARPU will be reasonable for the users.
Management Team
Nepal Television has the experienced managerial and Technical team working since last 27 years.
Nepal Telecom has very long history and has strong managerial and technical team.

Chapter 6
Market Strategy
The market strategy will be always subject to the best performance for long lasting business operation with best return and reputation of the organizations.
6.1 Pricing
The pricing mechanism will include the fee structure, regional difference and competitive methods.
6.1.1 Fee Structure
The fees subscribers should pay will comprise of set-top boxes to watch IPTV on Television Set, installation expenses and subscription fee. The subscription fee will be almost the same as the traditional cable fee.
6.1.2 Regional Difference
The subscription fee can be differentiated for city based users and rural users.
6.1.3 Competitive Methods
The subscription fee can be determined on the basis of competitors’ charge.

6.2 Market Plan
The market plan can be determined on the basis of density of population. In Kathmandu valley, around 100,000 subscribers may use IPTV in the first year and there could be the increment of 50% every year for successive five years.

Chapter 7
Technical Solution
7.1 Overview
The technical solution adopts the digital pay-TV system based on IPTV standard via ADSL Internet using wired and WI-FI technology for PC, TV, and cell phones. It consists of live programs, interactive, and VOD facilities.

A Typical Block Diagram of IPTV (Courtesy CCK)

Technical Diagrams

Subscribers will receive dozens of TV Programs under the conditions of installations to receive in any device.

7.2 IPTV Building Blocks
1. Content (Sources of content)
2. Head end (Decoding, Multiplexing, Encoding)
3. Distribution (IP Network)
4. Home Network (PC or TV with Set top Box, ADSL Internet)
7.3 Technical Risk and Opportunity
People may not be able to operate the IPTV because of the computer illiteracy of the rural people
Subscribers have the Television Facility at anytime, anywhere and any device.

Note: The financial Calculation for ROI (Return of Investment) will be included in Feasibility Study Report. That needs the careful evaluation of cost of equipment and ADSL Service cost.

Digital Switchover Plan of NTV

Friday, September 21st, 2012 | Permalink

Digital Switchover Plan of NTV

The history of Television Broadcasting commences more than five decades ago. The technology of Television Broadcasting is rapidly changing with time. In the last decade, there is significant development in the field of digital technology and Information Communication Technology (ICT) has been the dominating technology merging with Telecommunication and Broadcast Technology. There is also significant role of Internet Protocol (IP) network based systems in any of the modern communication technologies for traditional telecommunication system, cellular communication system and ICT. So, there is no any alternate except bringing to ICT with broadcasting and Telecommunication.
ITU-T has determined the deadline for analog switch off in the field of Broadcasting by 2017. Since Nepal Television a leading Television Broadcasting Organization of the country and only state owned Television Broadcasting organization should have the biggest responsibility to proceed towards the completion of the mission by the deadline. In this regard, Nepal Television needs rigid and practical planning to achieve the goal.
Nepal Television should be successful to implement the target by the deadline. However, switching over digital system from existing analog and hybrid system is not an over-night job. It has the following points to be considered to proceed towards digitization and complete the mission in the stipulated time period:
1. Standardization: The most important point to be considered before proceeding towards the target is determination of the Standardization of the Digital Television Broadcasting System including terrestrial and hand-held systems. Nepal is not technically independent so that it has to select the most suitable standard for Digital Television System for the context of our country. The prevailing digital Television Standards of Japan, China, European Region and American regions are different. So, it is an intelligent job to select the best standard which will be beneficial for our country in the long run.

2. Spectrum Management: Spectrum management plays the vital role to start up towards the digitization of Television Broadcasting System especially terrestrial Television System. It needs very intelligent management of spectrum including Single Frequency Network (SFN) and Multi Frequency Network (MFN). While managing the spectrum, government should give the priority for the state owned Television Organization.

3. Budget: Essential budget needs to be significantly allocated to complete the task which is almost next five years plan. The budget should be broken down in according to the annual plan. The annual plan must be fixed, implacable and rigid so that the overall mission could be completed in the stipulated period of time. The budget should be planned with proper way so that that will be just enough to complete the task.

4. Man Power: Nepal Television has the longest history in the field of Television Broadcasting and it has experienced man power for the existing system. However, Nepal Television has to upgrade its man power for the upcoming complete digital technology. Nepal Television has to develop human resource for the latest technology with proper training and by recruiting right people in the future. So, Human Resource Management of NTV must plan to develop its man power to succeed the complete digital change over for its planning, operation and maintenance.

5. Set-up Box Management: Once the terrestrial system goes to digital migration, the television receiving system changes. Every household needs a set-up box which costs a significant amount for the people of low economic condition. So, the policy must be determined whether the set-top box is to be provided by government free of cost or with subsidized rate or the people have to buy themselves. There are some countries like Korea where the government has provided the set-top box free of cost and in subsidized rate depending on the economy of the people.

6. Technical Planning: The technical planning has been listed as below:

Recent Requirements:
(a) Discussion on the subject in different levels with government authorities about technical, financial and policies to complete mission.
(b) Fixing the Standardization.
(c) Spectrum management
(d) Experiencing the Pilot Project of Digital Terrestrial Broadcasting.
(e) Convincing the government authorities for required Budget.

Technical Upgrade to complete the digital switch over by 2017 (with Budget):
Year 2013
Transmitter Upgrading Studio Upgrading Digital Automation
Experiencing Pilot Project of Digital Terrestrial Transmission of Singh durbar.
Budget: US$115,000 80m2-A studio Digital Upgrade.

Budget: US$250,000 To complete implementation for Ingest-4 ports, Storage-32 TB online and Playout 1+1 for two channels.
Budget: US$325,000
Planning to establish simulcast digital Transmitters in Phulchowki, Pokhara, Jaleshwor and Namjay.
Budget: US$460,000 - -
Year 2014
Planning to establish simulcast digital Transmitters in Budhitola, Gorkha, Gulmi, Daunne and Palpa.
Budget: US$575,000
80m2-B studio Digital Upgrade.

Budget: US$250,000 Adding 2 channels for Ingest and storage up to 16-32 GB more

Budget: US$ 60,000
Transmitter Upgrading Studio Upgrading Digital Automation
- - Media management System with online or near line.
Budget: US$150,000
- - Conversion into full automation.
Budget: US$150,000
Year 2015
Planning to establish digital simulcast Transmitters in Hetauda, Doti, Dang and Rolpa.
Budget: US$460,000 300m2 studio Digital Upgrade.

Budget: US$300,000 News Room Computer System (NRCS) for complete digital news solution.
Budget: US$100,000
- - Providing license to news computers.
Budget: included above)
Year 2016
Planning to establish simulcast Transmitters in Kakani, Tehrathum, Chamere and Ilam.
Budget: US$575,000 120m2 studio Digital Upgrade and MCR analog Routers replacement.
For 120m2 studio: US$ 300,000
For MCR: US$ 100,000 Review of the system. Developing man power.

Budget: Included above
Sub Total: US$ 21,85,000 Sub Total: US$ 12,00,000 Sub Total: US$ 785,000
Year 2017
Review of the system used, evaluation and ready to declare digital switch over and analog switch off.
Additional up gradation required by the time:
1. ENG, EFP : US$ 100,000
2. Power System, Air Condition, Telephone, MIS: US$ 200,000
3. OBVAN Upgrading (News + Program Production): US$ 50,000
4. DSNG KU/C Band DVB-S2 Uplink Upgrading: US$ 300,000
Total: US$ 650,000
Grand Total: US$ 48,20,000

A Concept of Digital Television in Nepal

Sunday, August 21st, 2011 | Permalink




Chinta Mani Baral

Chief Engineer, (NTV)


The history of Television Broadcasting in Nepal started when Nepal Television started its Broadcasting in 1985. Nepa Television started its broadcasting from VHS (Video Home System) video format to High Band and then BetaCam.  It has been few years; Nepal Television has been using DV formats for video recording. At the moment, Nepal Television is using DV and BetaCam format for video recording purpose. Nepal Television used its Repeater Relay Stations across the country to access the signal for wide geographical area of the country. But the signal quality degraded in a long distance. So, the alternate system was used to overcome the shortcomings of Repeaters using Satellite System for Television Broadcasting. Consequently, Nepal Television uplinked its signal to Satellite successfully in 2001 and used TVRO (Television Receive Only) to downlink the signal in different locations across the country and re-transmitted using LPT (Low Power transmitter) in the local area so that the common people accessed the NTV signal free of cost. In the mean time, several Private Television Stations are emerging in Kathmandu valley and around 10 Television Stations are broadcasting so far using Satellite System.

In course of time, the Television Broadcasting technology is changing rapidly and the one-way broadcasting system has been converted to Interactive and carrying so many additional facilities apart from audio and video. So, the World is moving forward towards Digital Television Broadcasting. The developed countries have already switched over Complete Digital System and developing countries are also trying to switch over to digital as soon as possible. Sooner or later, Nepal also should move forward towards complete digital system to keep up the latest technology developed in the World. If we try to carry on old technology even, we will be unable to get spare parts to rectify old system in the International market, so it


will be too late if we couldn’t plan now properly towards migration of digital World. We also need to hurry up for proper planning of Digital System to be compatible to International market and standard.


Terrestrial Television Broadcasting in Nepal:

Nepal Television is the oldest Television Station of the country doing terrestrial TV Broadcasting across the country. Nepal Television is using both VHF and UHF Bands for Terrestrial TV Transmission. But UHF band is on use for Terrestrial TV Transmission by Kantipur, Image and some TV Broadcasting stations outside the Kathmandu valley. But Nepal Television is using Terrestrial TV Broadcasting to fulfill the responsibility of Public Broadcasting Station to access signal to common people free of cost. NTV is the TV Broadcasting station to broadcast Terrestrial Transmission across the country in very effective way. So, it needs proper planning of frequency spectrum for Terrestrial TV Transmission so that Nepal Television could fulfill the public responsibility. So far, NTV is using VHF Band exclusively for Terrestrial TV Broadcasting.


Terrestrial Television Frequency Band Planning:

Television channels (frequencies) for digital television are the same as for analog television. This also means that the same antennas can be used to watch DVB-T signals. Of course, in some cases we will have to upgrade our antenna system in order to receive digital terrestrial television because DVB-T transmitters may transmit on a different channel which we may not receive with the existing installation. But in general the same VHF/UHF antennas are used. Below we can find TV channel frequencies as used in DVB-T Standard.

Both VHF and UHF Bands are used in Digital Terrestrial TV Transmission. Since Nepal Television is using both VHF and UHF Bands for Terrestrial TV Transmission and same band of frequency Spectrum can be used for Digital Terrestrial TV Transmission as well.


The following frequency system needs to be in planning for public and private sector for Digital Terrestrial TV Transmission.



VHF Channel frequencies (MHz)

CH Start Frequency Center Frequency End Frequency
5 174 177.5 181
6 181 184.5 188
7 188 191.5 195
8 195 198.5 202
9 202 205.5 209
10 209 212.5 216
11 216 219.5 223
12 223 226.5 230

UHF Channel frequencies (MHz)

CH Start Frequency Center Frequency End Frequency
21 470 474 478
22 478 482 486
23 486 490 494
24 494 498 502
25 502 506 510
26 510 514 518
27 518 522 526
28 526 530 534
29 534 538 542
30 542 546 550
31 550 554 558
32 558 562 566
33 566 570 574
34 574 578 582
35 582 586 590
36 590 594 598
37 598 602 606
38 606 610 614
39 614 618 622
40 622 626 630
41 630 634 638
42 638 642 646
43 646 650 654
44 654 658 662
45 662 666 670
46 670 674 678
47 678 682 686
48 686 690 694
49 694 698 702
50 702 706 710
51 710 714 718
52 718 722 726
53 726 730 734
54 734 738 742
55 742 746 750
56 750 754 758
57 758 762 766
58 766 770 774
59 774 778 782
60 782 786 790
61 790 794 798
62 798 802 806
63 806 810 814
64 814 818 822
65 822 826 830
66 830 834 838
67 838 842 846
68 846 850 854
69 854 858 862



Worldwide Scenario of DTV: The trend of Television Technology is in transition from analog to digital all over the World. Some of the countries have already switched over to digital completely and most of the countries have fixed the Analog switch off deadline. The World is now in the transition of Analog to Digital migration. So, it is essential to determine the fix date of digital switch over.



Courtesy: Elettronika

Some Countries with complete Analog Switch-Off:

S.N. Name of the countries Analog Switched off date
1. Luxembourg 1st SEPT, 2006
2. Finland FEB, 2008
3. Sweden 29th OCT, 2007
4. Switzerland 26th NOV, 2007
5. USA 12th June, 2009
6. Denmark 1st November, 2009
7. Norway 1st DEC, 2009
8. Belgium 1st March, 2010
9. Spain 3rd April, 2010
10. Slovenia 1st DEC, 2010


Some Countries targeted to Complete Analog Switch-Off:

S.N. Name of the Countries Analog Switch-Off Targeted
1. Australia 31st DEC, 2013
2. Bolivia 2012
3. Canada 31st August, 2011
4. Colombia 1st January, 2017
5. Hong Kong 2012
6. Japan 24th July, 2011
7. France 30th NOV, 2011
8. Italy 12th DEC, 2012
9. United Kingdom 2012
10. Malaysia 2012


Why Digital Television?

  1. Due to efficient encoding and modulation techniques used in Digital Television broadcasting; Band Width (BW) is saved.


  1. Digital Terrestrial Transmission is used in SFN (Single Frequency Network) and MFN (Multi Frequency Network) mode, so that there is significant Spectrum Efficiency. The single frequency can be used all over the country with the same content transmitted in the same time/frequency synchronization connected with GPS (Global Positioning System). Multi Frequency Network (MFN) can be used for different content in different frequencies.




Courtesy: Elettronika

  1. Digital Terrestrial Television Signal can be received by not only Television Receiver but also by hand-held devices like cellular phone.



Courtesy: Elettronika

Courtesy: Elettronika

Commercial Advantages of Digital Television System:

A Digital Television Broadcasting is not only a simple Television Broadcasting System; it also carries out several other facilities and interactive activities with viewers. The following points are the additional facilities which are carried out by Digital Television System so that we can generate additional revenue from those facilities and services.

  1. PPV (Pay Per View): Digital Television System can be used for PPV (Pay Per View) service to the viewers so that additional revenue can be generated from on-screen pre-scheduled programs.


  1. VOD (Video on Demand): Viewers can demand their interesting programs with the CAS (Conditional Access Server) by network and they pay the additional charge for it.


  1. Internet Connection: An IP Packet can be encapsulated in the Digital Television Network so that Internet Service can be provided in the rural area where cable is not available. So that the common people can access Internet service in addition to Television Channels.


  1. EPG (Electronic Program Guide): Digital Television System provides complete scheduling of the programs which are to be broadcast during a week or a month or more duration.


  1. Encryption: A Scrambler can be used in CAS (Conditional Access System) to encrypt the signal to protect from unauthorized access.


  1. Mobile TV: The Digital Television can be used in mobile systems in handheld devices like cell phones.


  1. Doctors’ Prescription: Digital Television Network is useful to provide experienced doctor’s access in remote area to common people who can not afford to visit in city area.



Courtesy: Elettronika


  1. Banking Transaction: Digital TV Network will be useful in Banking Transaction like account information, managing account, using credit card via Network etc.


  1. E-Commerce: Online buying and selling is emerging market called E-Commerce in modern World which can be carried out from Digital TV Network.


  1. Distance Education: Distance Education will be very effective from Digital TV Network because Digital TV Network is interactive. So, remote people can access proper education from Digital TV Network.


Similarly, the Digital Television network can be used to send Telegram, subscribing music and songs, demanding movie for tonight, latest news etc.

Digital Television Standards:

After the successful attempt of Digital Television Broadcasting; several standards have been developed. Those standards are being used on the basis of regions and technical convenience. Some countries have adopted the digital standards on the basis of foreign assistance in technology. It is the right time of us to choose the suitable digital standard for our country.


The different Digital Television standards are as given below:

S.N. Digital Standard Adopted Countries
1. DVB European Countries, Russia, Australia, India, North African Countries, Middle East Countries.
2. ATSC US and Canada
3. ISDB Japan, South America
4. DMB (CMMB) China

Abbreviations and full forms:

DVB: Digital Video Broadcasting

ATSC: American Television Standard Committee

ISDB: Integrated System Digital Broadcasting

CMMB: China Multimedia Mobile Broadcasting


The above mentioned standards are further divided into sub-standards according to the transmission media used for Digital Television Broadcasting as below:

DVB-T/T2: DVB- Terrestrial (To broadcast Digital Terrestrial Television)

DVB-S/S2: DVB-Satellite (To broadcast Digital Satellite Television)

DVB-C/C2: DVB-Cable (For Digital Cable TV)


DVB-T/H: DVB- Terrestrial-Hand Held (For receive Digital Television in mobile hand-held devices like cell phones)

Above mentioned T2, S2 and C2 are the latest technical standards.


Digital Standard Recommendation for Nepal:

Since DVB standard has been adopted in European Countries, Russia, Australia, India, North African Countries, Russia, and Australia and in Middle East Countries. We have already adopted DVB-S standard in Satellite System and we are updating to DVB-S2 shortly. India and Australia are also adopting the DVB standard. In this regard, DVB could be the first selection in context of our country.

ATSC used in US is too expensive and ISDB of Japan is also difficult to afford. Chinese standard (DMB) is another option but the technology is limited to a particular country. We need to depend on in a single country if we adopt DMB.

For Digital Terrestrial TV Transmission, there are two standards T and T2. Terrestrial Standard (T) has been used commercially and T2 standard is still under documentation. But Terrestrial (T) can be updated to T2 easily. So, we can start from Standard T and update to T2 whenever required. In addition to this, T2 is more expensive and technically complicated.  So, it will be prudent to start up form T and update to T2 later on.


Courtesy: Elettronika

Digital TV Receiver:

The Digital Television is received either by Digital Receiver which viewer should buy new receiver with integrated Set-top Box or by old analog receiver with additional device. Those viewers who wish to use old analog TV receiver need to buy additional set-top Box to watch the Digital Television. The cost of set-top Box is not significantly expensive which viewers can afford easily.



Adopting Digital Television System is the demand of time and we need to migrate towards digital system as soon as possible. We have to take advantage of digital television broadcasting to generate additional revenue by providing additional services and facilities to viewers.






  1. Broadcast Engineers Seminar, Tokyo Japan (2002)
  2. Digital Mobile Television Seminar, Kuala Lumpur (2004)
  3. Low Cost Digital Studio Workshop, Colombo (2006)
  4. Digital TV in your Pocket by Marco Fiore, Elettronika (Italy),2010









My Personal Information

Saturday, July 16th, 2011 | Permalink

Name:                                      Chinta Mani Baral

Permanent Address:         Gwadi-9, Gulmi

Father’s Name:                    Late Khageshor Baral

Mother’s Name:                   Mrs. Tulasa Baral

Date of Birth:                        3 rd August, 1971

Wife’s Name:                         Mrs. Sharmila Parajuli Baral

Sons’ Name:                           Sachit Baral, Asim Baral

Present Address:                Saibu-4, Lalitpur

Contact No: 00977-1-5592672 (Home)
00977-9851038510 (Mobile)

Citizenship:                          Nepali

Passport .:                            Nepali (3335632)

Driving License No:          06-198085

Motor Cycle No:                 BA 8 PA, 2918

Car No.:                                 BA 4 CHA, 2448

ID Card No.:                        9-16

E-Mail ID:                 

Phone Contacts:              00977-1-5592672 (Res)

00977-9851038510 (Mobile)

Position:                          Chief Engineer, NTV


Visited Countries: India, China, Malaysia, Sri-Lanka, Singapore, Japan

USA. Hong-Kong, UAE, Qatar, Italy, Korea, Thailand

Academic Background: B.E. (Electronics and Electrical Communication)

M.Sc. (Information Technology)


Membership:               Nepal Engineers Council, Regd. No. 444

Member of NEA

Member of IEEE

Posted by CM Baral


Friday, July 15th, 2011 | Permalink

Name:                          Chinta Mani Baral

Gender:                       Male

Father’s Name:            Mr. Khageshor Baral

Date of Birth:              3rd August, 1971

Marital Status:             Married (With Spouse and two sons)

Permanent Address:    Gwadi-9, Gulmi

Lumbini Zone, Nepal



Academic Qualification:

S.N. Name of Exam University/Board Passed Year
1. S.L.C Nepal Board 1987
2. I.Sc. Tribhuvan University, Nepal 1989
3. B.Sc. (First) Tribhuvan University, Nepal 1991
4. B.E. (Electronics and Communication) Panjab University, India 1992-1996
5. M.Sc. (Information Technology) Alagappa University, India 2003-2005


Language Skill:

  1. Nepali: Mother Tone (can Read, Write and Speak Fluently)
  2. English: Educational Medium Language (Can Read, Write and Speak Fluently)
  3. Hindi: Neighbour Country Language. (National Language of India) (Can Read, Write and Speak Fluently)


Computer Operational Skill:

  1. I have fully confidence on Windows Operating Systems.
  2. I can operate Microsoft Office ( MS-Word, MS-Excel, MS-PowerPoint, MS-Access, Front page)


  1. I can operate Photoshop and Adobe Premiere (Video Editing Software) and other Windows Applications.
  2. I can operate all multimedia related Applications.
  3. I have full confidence to work with multimedia environment.


Computer Programming Language Skill:

  1. BASIC, C, C++, Visual Basic, Visual C++
  2. Internet Programming (HTML), JAVA and JavaScript


International Trainings:

  1. I got training on Satellite TV Broadcasting System in Bangalore, India when Nepal Television was first Uplinked to Intel Sat-704 from 2nd April to 21st April, 2001.


  1. I have training on Digital Television Broadcasting held in Kathmandu from 13th to 17th May, 2002 organized by AIBD.


3.  I have participated in the CNN-South Asia In-Country Workshop on 24th to 25th June held in New Delhi, India.

4.  I have participated in Television Engineering Course of Asian Broadcasters Seminar conducted by NHK in Tokyo, Japan from 14th October 2002 to 3rd November 2002.

5.  I have participated in Mobile Broadcasting Technology Seminar held in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in 2004.

6.  I have participated in the Seminar of Administrative Officials of Broadcasting Stations held in Beijing China in 2005.

7.  I have participated in ABU-UNESCO (IPDC) Workshop on Low Cost Digital Television Studio Facilities from 3rd to 14th July 2006 at Colombo, Sri Lanka.

8.  I have participated in Linux for Network Servers in Broadcasting Stations organized by AIBD from 26th February to 9th March 2007 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

9.  I have participated in Senior Engineering Management Training in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia in July 2008.

10.  I have participated in the training of News Room Management organized by CFI and Nepal Television in Kathmandu in January 2010.

11. I have participated in the training organized by the United States Telecommunication Training Institute (USTTI) in the courses of Radio and TV Studio Design, Operation and Management and Broadcast Transmitter Operation and Maintenance during 6th July 2010 to 6th August 2010 in United States of America.

12.  I have participated in DVB-T(Digital Video Broadcasting-Terrestrial) training organized by Electronika Group of Italy held in Bari (Italy) in September-2010.

13.  I have participated Digital Switchover Seminar in People’s Republic of South Korea in May, 2011.

Work Experience in TV Broadcasting:

I joined Nepal Television in 1996 and I have been working in this organization in the following sectors:

  1. From 1996-2000: I worked as an Studio Engineer and looked after Studio Equipment, Live TV Broadcasting, Program Recording and Studio Operation.
  2. From 2001-2002: I worked on Satellite Broadcasting System and Earth Station.
  3. 2003-2005: I worked as a Technical In Charge of newly introduced Nepal Television Channel called Metro Channel which was established on assistance of Chinese Govt.


Other Experiences:

  1. 2006-2008: I worked as Chief of General Engineering Section which includes the following:

(a)    IT (Information Technology)

(b)   General Computers and all Non Linear System

(c)    Electrical works and Generators

(d)   Air Condition System

(e)    Civil Constructions

(f)    Office Telephony and EPABX

(g)   IPTV, SMS, NTV Web Site, Character Generators

(h)   Office LAN

(i) I have fully professionalism in Computer Hardware Repair and Maintenance and use of many professional applications.

  1. I was leading to use Internet System for Data Connectivity (for Video Collection) from several parts of the country to Kathmandu at the time of historic Constituent Assembly Election.


  1. Similarly I worked with Optical Fiber System for Live Telecast from several parts of Kathmandu valley at the time of Constituent Assembly Election.


  1. I used ImmerSat Technology BIGAN (Broadband Internet Global Area Network) to make live Telecast from Mount Everest when the Reporter of NTV was climbing to Mount Everest.


  1. I worked as Chief of Studio Maintenance and Transmission of both channels (NTV and NTV2) of Nepal Television Corporation. I look after all the daily activities of Transmission of both channels. It includes:


(a)    Studio Design and Planning

(b)   Non Linear Editing and Video Server System.

(c)    Live Telecast of the programs

(d)   MCR and Satellite System

  1. Apart from this, took the responsibility on Intranet connection for Live Video streaming from different locations of the country to Kathmandu in co-operation with Nepal Telecom while I was chief of Studio Section.


10.  Then I worked as the chief of Transmitter Maintenance and Transmission Center Section where I have the responsibility of the following activities:

(a)    Transmitter Maintenance

(b)   Satellite System and Earth Station

(c)    Out Door Broadcasting System

(d)   Optical Fiber Links

(e)    Civil Constructions

(f)    Expansion of Terrestrial Transmission.

11. Now I am working as Chief Enigneer of Nepal Television Corporation.

My current responsibilities:

(a) Transmitters Operation & Maintenance

(b) Managing Transmission Stations

(c) O.B. Van Operation, Maintenance and Management

(d) Earth Station Operation, Maintenance and Management

(e) Civil Constructions Management

(f) Power Supply, Generators and UPS Operations and Management.

(g) Optical Fiber Network Management and Operation.

Teaching and Training Management Experience:

I have been teaching in different levels (School, Higher Secondary, Bachelors and Masters levels) since last 14 years.

  1. I have been working as Part Time Lecturer in Electronic and Computer Subjects in different Engineering and IT (Information Technology) Colleges of Kathmandu.


(a)    I have three years of Teaching Experience in Star Engineering College in Electronics and Computer related Subjects. (Part Time Guest Lecturer)

(b) I have seven years of teaching experience in Lord Buddha Education Foundation on Telecommunication and IT related subjects (Satellite Communication, Broadband Communication, Computer Network, Voice-Over Internet Protocol, Artificial Intelligence, Mobile Communication, Digital Communication, Remote Communication, Optical Fiber, LOS Broadcasting, Multimedia Technology etc) for both Bachelors and Masters Levels.

(Morning and Evening Shift)

© I have two years teaching experience for Masters level Students in Nepal College of Information Technology in Kathmandu on Data Communication and Computer Network and Electronics Commerce. (Guest Lecturer)

2. I have provided training to High Ranking Officials of Nepal Television for Computer Literacy.

3. I had given training to Non Linear Video Editors of Nepal Television on Video Editing Technology.

4. I had managed all technical arrangement for ABU program in Kathmandu for IPTV and Internet Broadcasting Technology.

5. I had managed all technical arrangement for AIBD program in on Advance Video Server System.

6. I had given training on Terrestrial and Satellite Broadcasting to Technicians of Nepal Police at Police Headquarter, Naxal in Kathmandu.

Hello world!

Tuesday, July 12th, 2011 | Permalink

Welcome to WordPress. This is your first post. Edit or delete it, then start blogging!